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希腊24字母表(发音)

2019年10月8日 / 69次阅读

希腊字母是希腊语所使用的字母,也广泛使用于数学、物理、生物、化学、天文等学科。

希腊字母跟英文字母、俄文字母类似,只是符号不同,标音的性质是一样的。希腊字母是世界上最早有元音的字母。俄语、乌克兰语等使用的西里尔字母和格鲁吉亚语字母都是由希腊字母发展而来,学过俄文的人使用希腊字母会觉得似曾相识。希腊字母进入了许多语言的词汇中,如 Delta(三角洲)这个国际语汇就来自希腊字母Δ,因为Δ是三角形。

希腊字母一共24个,大小写如下表:

希腊24字母表

希腊24字母表

希腊字母源于腓尼基字母,腓尼基字母只有辅音,从右向左写,希腊语言元音发达,希腊人增添了元音字母。因为希腊人的书写工具是蜡板,有时前一行从右向左写完后顺势就从左向右写,变成所谓 “耕地”式书写,后来逐渐演变成全部从左向右写。字母的方向也颠倒了。罗马人引进希腊字母,略微改变变为拉丁字母,在世界广为流行。希腊字母广泛应用到学术领域,如数学等。西里尔字母也是由希腊字母演变而成。英语单词 alphabet(字母) ,源自通俗拉丁语alphabetum,alphabetum 又源自希腊语αλφαβητον (音译beton) ,即为前两个希腊字母 α(Alpha)及 β(Beta)所合成。

希腊字母对希腊文明乃至西方文化影响深远。《新约》里,神说:“我是阿尔法,我是欧米伽,我是首先的,我是最后的,我是初,我是终。”(圣经启示录22:13)。在希腊字母表里,第一个字母是 “Α,α ”(Alpha),代表开始,最后一个字母是 “Ω, ω” 欧米伽(Omega),代表终了。这正是《新约》用希腊语写作的痕迹。

  • \alpha (lower case alpha) – a generic variable; an angle of a triangle
  • \beta (lower case beta) – a generic variable; a different angle of a triangle
  • \Gamma (capital gamma) – the gamma function; the graph of a function as a set of pairs; a graph in the sense of graph theory
  • \gamma (lower case gamma) – a closed curve (e.g., integrating over the real or complex plane)
  • \Delta (capital delta) – a change; the max degree of a graph
  • \delta (lower case delta) – a change; a small positive value that you may choose; an impulse
  • \varepsilon (lower case epsilon) – a small arbitrary positive real number; an error rate
  • \zeta (lower case zeta) – the Riemann zeta function; a complex variable (like z)
  • \eta (lower case eta) – an error rate; a step size in an algorithm
  • \Theta (capital theta) – an angle; asymptotic equivalence
  • \theta (lower case theta) – an angle
  • \iota (lower case iota) – the inclusion function; an injective function or embedding
  • \kappa (lower case kappa) – curvature; connectivity; conditioning
  • \Lambda (capital lambda) – matrix of eigenvalues
  • \lambda (lower case lambda) – an eigenvalue of a matrix
  • \mu (lower case mu) – a measure; a mean;
  • \nu (lower case nu) – None. I hate this letter because I think it’s hard to draw and it’s too close to v.
  • \Xi (capital xi, like “ksee”) – None. It’s a weird letter that only a math troll would love. Too close to \equiv and conflicts with drawing bars on top of variables.
  • \xi (lower case xi) – a complex variable; I often draw it like a lightning bolt with a hat.
  • \Pi (capital pi) – a product;
  • \pi (lower case pi) – the constant~3.14; a projection
  • \rho – projection; a rate; a rotation; a correlation
  • \Sigma (upper case sigma) – sum; an alphabet of symbols; covariance matrix
  • \sigma (lower case sigma) – standard deviation; a symmetry; a reflection; a sign +/-1.
  • \tau (lower case tau) – a symmetry; a translation; if I really want to use \pi but it would be confusing, so I draw it standing like a bird holding up one of its legs.
  • \Upsilon (capital upsilon) – ??
  • \upsilon (lower case upsilon) – Too close to “u,v” not used.
  • \Phi (capital phi, like “fai”, though many pronounce “fee”) – a general function; a potential function
  • \phi or \varphi (lower case phi) – a function/morphism; golden ratio; totient function
  • \chi (lower case chi, like “kai”) – a character; a statistic; the indicator function of an event; Euler characteristic
  • \Psi (capital psi, like “sai”) – a function/morphism;
  • \psi (lower case psi) – a function/morphism
  • \Omega (capital omega) – a lower bound
  • \omega (lower case omega) – a lower bound; a complex cube root of 1

本文链接:https://www.maixj.net/misc/greek-alphabet-22900

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